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THE GOLDEN DAY by Lewis Mumford 

A distinguished study of American experience and culture. Professor 
Santayana says of it, "The best book about America if not the best Ameri- 
can book I have ever read." $2.50 

1. U^A-U.^^ 



T-c. PL 


The Argofly Book Store will send any book in 
print to any part of the world — post-free ! 
Orders filled without delay. We also carry a 
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46 Fourth Ave., Bible House, New York City 


! SINGING SOLDIERS. By John J. Niles. Illus- 
trated by Margaret Tiiorxiley Williamson. 
9X6J, xi. + 171 pp. Scribners. 10s. 6d. n. 
On his first trip to Paris as a member of the 

j A.E.F., Lieutenant Niles chanced upon a copy of 
French war-songs by M. Botrel, and as a 
result conceived the idea of making a collection 
of United States Army war-songs. He found, how- 
ever, that the American soldier as a rule borrowed 
his songs from the music-halls, and was about to 
abandon his project when he encountered some 
negro troops. Among these the corrupting in- 
fluence of the music-hall was far less apparent, and 
he discovered many natural-born singers, usually _ 
from rural districts, "who, prompted by hunger,' 
wounds, homesickness, and reaction to so many 
generations of suppression, sang the legend of the 
black man to tunes and harmonies they made up 
as they went along." In this book he has pre- 
sented, witli«a running and picturesque description 
of the way in which he gathered them, the words 
and tunes of the best of these songs. None of them 
are war-songs in the ordinary sense, although many 
of them embody the humours, discomforts, triviali- 
ties, and tragedies of war. But the negro's was 
a folk inspiration, not a national one, and it was 
the haunting and humble mood of the " Spirituals " 
which he expressed and never the fighting impulse. 
What Lieutenant Niles describes as his " ability 
to dramatize trivial situations " is everywhere 
apparent, as is his familiar emotional simplicity. 
The melodic charm of many of these songs is 
equal both in its strength and pathos to the best 
of the " Spirituals," and on that account alone this 
is a valuable compilation. But Lieutenant Niles 
has set them in a narrative which, with Miss 
Williamson's sketches, enables us to visualize the 
negro singer and realize both the .spirit in which 
he sang and the affecting quality of his vocalization. 

Edited with an Introduction by James Weldon 
Johnson. Musical Arrangements by J. Rosa- 
mond Johnson. lOiXTf, 189 pp. Chapman and 
Hall. 12s. 6d. n. 




Who Gave Hia Life in Fravce 


I think that I shall never see 
A poem lovely as a tree. 

A tree whose hungry mouth is 

Against the earth's sweet flowing 

A tree that looks at God all day 
And lifts her leafy arms to pray; 

A tree that may in summer wear 
A nest of robins in her hair; 

Upon whose bosom snow has lain; 
Who intimately lives with rain. 

Poems are made by fools like me, 
But only Gc^i can make a tree. 

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Urify ' 


The surfaces of life are easy to under- 
stand ; their la^s, oharaoteristio move- 
ments, practical ultilities are ready to 
oar hand and ^e can seize on them and 
turn them to account with a sufficient 
facility and rapidity. But they do not 
carry us very far. They sufiice for 
active superficial life from day to day, 
but they do not solve the great problems 
of existence. On tbe other hand, ths 
knowledge of life's profundities, its 
potent secrets, its great, hidden, all- 
Setemining laws, is exceedingly diffi 
cult to us. We have found no plummet 
that can tathom these depths ; they 
seem to us a vague, indeterminate 
movement, a profound obscurity from 
which the mind recoils willingly to play 
with the fret and foam and facile 
radiances of the surface. Yet it is 
these depths that we must know if we 
would understand existence ; on the 
surface we get only Nature's secondary 
rules and practical bye-IaT73 which help 
U!^ to tide over the difficulties of the 
movement and to organise empirically 
without understanding in them her con- 
tinued transitions. 


Nothing is more obscure to humanity 
or less R sized by its understanding in 
whether the power that moves it or the 
sonse of the arm towards which it moves 
than its own communal and collective 

Ufa. Sociology does not help us, for it 
only gives us the history of the past and 
the external condition under which 
communities have survived. History 
teaches us nothing ; it is a confused 
torrent of events an-d personalities or a 
kaleidoscope of changing institutions. 
We do not seize the real sense of all 
this change and this continual stream- 
ing forward of human life in the 
channels of Time. What we do seize 
aie current or recurrent phenomena, 
facile generalisatioas, partial ideas. We 
talk of democracy, aristocracy and 
autocracy, collectivism and individ- 
ualism, imperialism and nationalism, the 
State and the commune, capitalism 
and labour, we advance hasty gen- 
eralisations and make absolute systems 
which are positively ^ announced to-day 
only to be abandoned perforce to- 
morrow; we espouse causes and ardent 
enthusiasms whose triumph turns to an 
early disillusionment and then forsake 
them for others, perhaps for those 
that we have taken so much trouble to 
destroy. For a whole century mankind 
thirsts and battles after liberty and 
earns it with a bitter expense of toil, 
tears and blood ; the century that 
enjoys without haviDg fought for it, 
turns away as from a puerile illusion 
and is ready to renounce the de- 
precated gain as the price of some 
new good. And all this happens because 
our whole though', and action with 
regard to our collective life is shallow 
and empirical ; it does not seek for, 
it does not base itself on a firm pro- 

found Rnd complete knowledge. The 
moral fa not the vaLity of human li7e\ 
of its ardoura and enthasiasmg and of 
t he ideaii it pursney, bat the neoessity 
ot a wiser, larger, more patient search 
a fter its true law and aim. i 

To-day the ideal of human unity is I 
more or less vaguely making its way | 
to the front of our oonsoiouayess. I 
The emergence of an ideal in ! 
hnman thought is always the 
sign of an intention in Nature, but 
at limes, she ^raeans only an 
attempt whioh is predestined to tem- 
porary failure. For Nature is slow and 
patient in her methods. She takes up 
ideas and half carries them out, then 
drops them by the wayside to resume 
them in some future era with a better 

oombination. . She tempts hum- 
anity ber thinking instrument, and 
tests bow far it is ready for the har- 
mony she has imagined ; she allows 
and incites man to attftmpc and fail, so 
that he may learn fcuid succeed better an 
other time. Still the ideal, having once 
made its way to the front of thought must 
certainly be attempted, and this ideal 
of human unity is likely to figure large- 
ly amoLg the determining forces of the 
futur , for the intellectual and material j 
circumstances of the age have prepared | 
and almost imposed it, especially the, 
scientific disooverieg whioh have made; 
oar earth so small that its V:«ste»tl 
kingdoms seem now no more than the 
provinces of a single country. 

Bat this very commodity of the 
material circumstances may bring about 
the failure of the ideal ; for when 
material circumstances favour a great 
change, but the heart and mind of the 
race are not really ready —especially the 
heart— failure may bo predicted, unless 
indeed men are wise in time and accept 
the inner change along with the ex- 
terna! readjustment But at present the 

human intellect has been so much 
mechanised by physical scioiioe that it 
is likely to attempt the revolution it 
is beginning to envisage priooipally or 
solely through mechanical means, 
through social and political adjustments. 
Now it is [not by social and political 
devices, or at any rate not by these 
chiefly or only that the unity of the 
human race can be enduringly or fruit 
fully accomplished. 

It must be remembered that a greater 
social or political unity is not neoes 
sarily a boon in itself ; it is only far 
pursuing in so far as it provides a 
means and a frame-work for a better, 
richer, more happy and puissant in- 
dividual and collective life. But 
hitherto the experience of mankind has 
not favoured the view that huge aggre- 
gations of mankind closely united and 
strictly organized are favourable to a 
rich and puissant human life. It would 
seem rather that ooUective life is more 
at ease with itself, more genial, varied, 
fruitful when it can concentrate itseif 
in small spaces and simpler organism^!. 

If we consider the past humanity so 
far as it is known to us, we fin i f ba> 
the interesting periods of human life, 
the scenes in which it has beea most 
richly lived and has left behind it the 
most precious fruits, were precisely 
those ages and countries in T>hicb 
humanity t^qs able to organise itself 
in little independent centres actirg irti- 
mately upon each other but not fuaed 
into a sirgle uaity. Modern Europe 
owes twn- thirds of its civilisation to 
three such supreme moments of human 
history, the religious I fe of the con- 
geries of tribes which called itself 
Israel and, subsequently, of the little 
nation of the Jews, the manysided life 
of the small Greek city states, the 
similar, though more restricted, artistic 
and intolleotual life of mediaeval 

Nor was eny age in Asia so rich in 
energy, so well worth living ir, so pro- 
ductive of the best and most endnric^ 
fruits as that heroic period of India 
when she was divided into small king- 
doms many of them no iarger than a 
modern district. Her most wonderful 
activities, her most vigorous and 
enduring work, that which, if we had 
to make a choice, wq should keep at 
the saqrifice of all else, belonged to that 
period ; the second best came afterwards i 
in larger, but still compara- 
tively sniall, nations and kiDgdoms 
like tho«e of the Pallavas, Pandayas, 
Oholas and Cher&s In comparison she 
received little from the greater empires 
that rose and fell mthiu. her borders, 
the Moghul, the Gupta or the Maurays, 
— little indeed except political and 
administrative organisatioa and a certain 
amount of lasting work not always of 
the best quality. 

Nevertheless, in this regime of the 
small city state or of regional cultures,' 
there was always a defect which com- 
pelled a tendency towards large organ- 1 
j isationi. The defect was a characteriitio | 
!of impermananoe, often of disorder,! 
specially of defenoelessness against the 
onslaught of oapaaity for wide-spread 
material well-beibg. Therefore this 
earlier form of collective life tended to 
disappear and give place to the orga- 
nisation of nations, kicgdoms and 
f mpires. 

And here we notice first, that it is . 
the groupments of smaller nations which 
have had the richest life and not the 
huge states and colo sal empires. 
Collective life diflusiog itself in too 
vast spaces seems to lose inteoeity and 
productiveness. Europe has lived in 
England, Fracce, the Netherlands, Spain, 
Italy, the small skates of Germany— 
all her later civilisation and progress 
evolved itself there, not in the huge 
mass of the Roly Roman or the Russian | 

Empire. "We see the same truth when 
^e compare the intense life and activity 
of Europe in its many nations 
acting richly upon each other, with the 
great masses of Asia her long periods 
of immobility in which great wars and 
revolutions seem to be small, tempo- 
rary and usually unproductive episodes, 
her centuries of reverie, her tendency 
towards and increasing isolation and 
fin^l stagnancy. Secondly, we 
note that in this organisation 
of nations and kingdoms those 
which have had the most 
vigorous life have gained it by a I 
sort of artificial concentration of the I 
vitality into some head, centre or 
capital, London, Paris, Rome. By 1 
this device Nature while acquiriiag 
the benefits of a larger organisation i 
and more perfect unity, preserves to i 
some extent that equally precious 
power of fruitful concentration in a 
small »paoe and into closely packed 
activity which she had possessed in 
her more primitive system of the 
city state or petty kindgom. But 
this advantage was purchased by the 
condemnation of the rest of the 
organisation, the district, the pro- 
vincial town, the village to a dull 
petty and somnolent life in strange \ 
contrast with the vital intensity of I 
the 'urbs* or metropolis. 

The Roman Empire is the historic 
example of organisation of unity 
which transcended the limit of the 
nation and its advacteges, and dis- 
advantages are there perfectly typifi- 
ed. The advantages are admirable . 
orgaiiisa^ion, peace, widespread security, I 
order and material well being ; the 
disadvantage is that the individual ' 
the city, the region sacrifice their in 
dependent life and become meohanicf 
parts of a maohihe ; life loses its coloty^j 
riohce^s, variety freedom and victorio j 
impulse towards production. The 
ganisation is great and admiral* j i 

but tha individual dwindles and ii 
over-po?!ered and overshadowed; and 
eventually by the smalluees and feeble- 
ness of the indivi^nal, the huge orga- 
nism inevitably and slowly loses even 
its gre-it coDservative vitality and 
dies of an inoreasirg stagnation. 
Even while outwardly whole and 
untouched, the structure has become 
rotten and begins to crack and dis- 
solve at the first shock from out- 
side. Saoh organisations — such periods 
are immensely useful for conserva- 
tion, even as the Roman Empire 
served to consolidate the gains of 
the rich centuries that preceded it 
But they arrest life and growth. 

We see, then, what would be 
likely to happen if there were a 
social, adminis:rE.tiva and political uci- 
hoation of mankind, such as some 
have begun to dream of now-a-days. 

A tremendous organisation would 
be needed under which both indivi- 
dual and regional life would be crushed, 
dwftrfed, deprived of their necessary 
freedom like a plant without rain 
and wind and sunlight, and this ^ould 
mean for humanity, after ptrhaps 
one first outburst of satisfied and 
joyous activity, a long period of mere 
3oniervation, progressive stagnancy and 
sventual decay. 

Tet the unity of mankind is evi- 
lently a part of Nature's eventual 
loheme and must come about. Only 
b must be under other conditions 
ind with safeguards which will keep 
,he raoe intaot in the roots of its 
' vitality. 

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You know people wonder where children get their knowledge of evil. 
Well, I could tell them. They get it from the looks that pass over their 
heads between grown-up people. Not any straight, useful, unbiased knowl- 
edge, but twisted, inflammatory stuff. 

Grace Sartwell Mason 


Like most children he knew his father better than his father knew him. 

Thomas Burke 


I'he concept of the self presents the crucial 
jiioblem in philosophy. No system of meta- 
physics is complete ^vithout it ; yet none can 
find a place for it without straining some 
apparently essential principle almost to break- 
ing point. Either you nuist declare the self 
to be mere appearance, in which case you nuist 
account for it as best you may, or it can barely 
be prevented from claiming for itself the whole 
sphere of reality. How such a unity can 
emerge from its elements or how, having 
emerged, it can ever cease to be, are equally 
unanswerable questions. A scientist may be 
content with a demonstration (such as that 
given by Professor Julian Huxley in the 
Journal of Philosophic Studies for July, 1926) 
of the successive steps by which the consti- 
tuents of an oi*ganism are integrated into a 
single autonomous being. The philosopher 
maintains that there is something there which 
was not there before ; moreover that, as the 
world is only known to us in the relation of 
object to subject, if it is necessary to abstract 
one term or the other, it is the object (as such) 
which must be declared to be unreal. And 
yet the very notion of the self eludes us : 
reality we feel inclined ' to conceive as 
universal and timeless ; but a self from which 
all particularity has been thought away turns 
out to be a bare notion, and without time it 
ceases to be anything but an impersonal mirror 
of abstract ideas. If that is our real likeness 
we certainly do not recognize ourselves in it. 
The whole concept is, as McTaggart said, essen- 
tially '* paradoxical " ; yet we can never con- 
vince ourselves that it is beyond the power of 
human thought to make it appear reasonable. 
For one thing the problem is really of prac- 
tical importance. What we are to understand 
by personality, and therefore freedom, deter- 
mines in the end our whole idea of responsi- 
bility, our whole faith in human perfectibility. 
Small wonder that the library of books de- 
voted to one aspect or another of the subject 
is ever increasing. 


ANYOXE wishing to weave may become a 
member of the Shuttle-Craft Guild which has 
now spread throughout the United States and into 
many distant countries. No previous experience is 
required. Some members weave purely for pleasure; 
others chiefly for profit. Membership includes a 
complete one-year course in hand weaving; pay- 
ment is scheduled over eight months. Membership 
aiso includes Guild Bulletins, special instruction by 
letter, criticism of wort, and answers to questions. 
There are many other interesting features. Send 10c 
for "Book of the Shuttle-Craft Guild of Hand 

The Shuttle-Craft Guild 

14-A Ash St. Cambridge, Mass. 

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By implication the philosophy of Irish faery lore declares that all power 
is from the body, all intelligence from the spirit. Western civilisation, 
religion and magic insist on power and therefore on body, and hence these 
three doctrines — efficient rule — the Incarnation — thaumaturgy. Eastern 
thought answers to these with indifference to rule, scorn of the flesh, 
contemplation of the formless. Western minds who follow the Eastern 
way become weak and vapoury, because unfit for the work forced upon 
them by Western life. Every symbol is an invocation which produces its 
V" equivalent expression in all worlds. The Incarnation involved modem 

science and modern efficiency, and individualised emotion. It produced 
a solidification of all those things that grow from individual will. The 
historical truth of the Incarnation is indifferent though the belief in that 
truth was essential to the power of the invocation. All civilisation is held 
together by the suggestions of an invisible hypnotist — by artificially 
created illusions. The knowledge of reality is always in some measure a 
secret knowledge. It is a kind of death. 


Ireland has grown sterile, because power has passed to men who lack 
the trammg which requires a certain amount of wealth to ensure continuity 
from generation to generation, and to free the mind in part from other 
tasks. A gentleman is a man whose principal ideas are not connected 
with his personal needs and his personal success. In old days he was a 
clerk or a noble, that is to say, he had freedom because of inherited wealth 
and position, or because of a personal renunciation. The names are 
different to-day, and I would put the artist and the scholar in the category 
of the clerk, yet personal renunciation is not now sufficient, or the hysterica 
passio of Ireland would be inspiration, or perhaps it is sufficient but is 
mpossible without inherited culture. For without culture or holiness, 
which are always the gift of a very few, a man may renounce wealth or any 
other external thing, but he cannot renounce hatred, envy, jealousy, 
revenge. Culture is the sanctity of the intellect. 

-a — • 




Science and Humant Progress. Bv Sir 
Oliver Lodge. Halley Stewart Lectures, 
1926. (Allen and Unwin. 4s. (3d. net.) 

Sir Oliver Lodge, makes a remark in the i 
course of these lectures which illustrates better 
than any other the spirit in which thev were ' 
written. He says, " The Universe is infinite 
in an infinite number of ways." ■ Sir Oliver's 
purpose throughout the book is to communi- 
cate to us his own sense of unbounded possi- 
bilities. He does this, in the first place, by 
cTescribing to us the universe of modern science. 
The present scientific outlook is the la>?t of 
tliree great stages in the historv of science. 
For centuries the world was dominated by the 
Aristotelian philosophy. Here and there a 
heretic, such as Roger Bacon, arose, and was 
persecuted accordingly. But the method of 
regarding the universe advocated bv these 
heretics ultimately prevailed. It 'became 
orthodox and its authority supreme under the 
reign of Sir Isaac Xewton. But the universe 
so envisaged was a closed universe— that is to 
say, the fundamental elements constituting it 
and Its fundamental laws were regarded as 
known. The work of future generations was to 
fill in the details of a picture of which the main 
lines were given. As Sir Oliver says : — 

The atoms of matter were tliere, liad been there 
from time immemorial. Matter and force reigned 
supreme. Everything was subject to tlie laws of 
dynamics ; and, as Laplace said, given the motions 
ot all the particles, the past could be reconstructed 
and the future foreseen. The Universe consisted of 
atoms, perfect in number and weight, unchangeable 
and permanent. The laws of their motions were 
known, and the theory was certain. 

(The new outlook, as Sir Oliver points out, 
owes much more to imagination than to experi- 
ment. There are comparatively few positive 
experiments that can be adduced to confirm the 
new theories. The experiments they rest upon 
are experiments that the old theories are incom- 
petent to interpret. A generalization that fails 
in even one instance must be abandoned. And 
the reorganization made necessary by the 
failure may be extremely comprehensive and 
profound. It is for this reason that modern 
science differs so radically from the science of 
the nineteenth centur3\ Sir Oliver well sum- 
marizes the difference : — 

The indestructibility of matter, which was the 
fundamental basis of chemistry, is no longer believed 
in. Even the conservation of energy is sometimes 
doubted. Force, the basis of dynamics, is held to be 
non-existent; and the physical universe is explained, 
or is attempted to be explained, in terms of a 
transcendental geometry not given by exijcrience at 
all. The fundamental abstractions of space and 
time are laid violent hands upon, and are treated as 
human illusions. Even the locomotion of matter, 
the most familiar thing in our ordinary life, is found 
to be something other than apipears. And what the 
end may be, who is to say ? 

The chief philosophical 'importance of the 
new outlook is to be found in that | 
fact, that it has made the material 
universe far more dependent on the 
mind than was formerly realized. There 
is even ground for supposing that our present 
/ distinction between the material and the 
I spiritual is unreal. In the present state of our 
knowledge it is possible to hold beliefs3 that 
could not be reconciled with the old scientific 
outlook. That fact does not, of course, make 
the beliefs in question true, and Sir Oliver 
confesses that many of the beliefs professed in 
this volume are matters of faith. He 
believes, for instance, that there are design 
and purpose in the universe, that life 

Faber & Gwyer 



Francis Thompson 

The Poet of Earth in 
Heaven : A Study in Poetic 
Mysticism and the Evolution 
of Love Poetry. 

Author of IValicr dc la Marc, The Three SiincUs, 
A Talk z:-ith Joseph Conrad^ etc. 
The treasure-tfove -which every genuine lover of 
poetry will discover in this beautifully produced 
volume mav be brieflv indicated b\- the Contents 

Preface. Chap. i. The Making of the Reed: 
2, The Critic and Prose Writer; 3, The Artist 5 
4, His Imaginative Type 5 5. Coventry Patmore ; 
6, Crashaw ; 7. SilieUey ; 8, Donne an*! St. 
Augustine ; 9, The Triumph C'f Death ; 10, Natiu-e 
Poetry; ii, Science and Sanctity; iz, Poctrv 
and Childhoo d ; 13, Bedouin and Spanish 
Romance ; 14, Tlie Spirituahzing of Love. 
Appendix i., : The Mistress of \'ision," a Com- 
mentar}', stanza by stanza, by Father John 
O'Connor. Appendix ii. : A Letter from Robert 
Browning. Appendix iii. : The Poet's Second 
Thoughts (examples of alterations in the poems 
made in manuscript or proof). Appendix iv. : 
Bibliography of Thompson's first editions. Index. 

Collotype Facsimile of Original holograph 
page of MSSt of ''Tlic Mistress of \'isiun" 
(hitherto unpublished). Demy. oct. Price i:: '6nct. 


is soiHething tliat uses matter and not 
merely a mechaincal result of a certain degree 
of complexity, and that our minds exist apart 
from our brains. Many people ^vill think this 
last belief the most doubtful, but Sir Oliver 
is strongly convinced of its truth. He claims 
to have had evidence, not only of the exist- 
ence of mind apart from brain, but of the per- 
sistence of full human personality after death. 
He thinks it ])robable, also, that wo shall 
inhabit after death an '' etheric body " shaped 
not unlike the body we have now. Just as 
minds exist inferior to our own, so there are 
superior minds. These minds, not being 
clothed in matter, do not reveal themselves 
to our sense-organs. Nevertheless, they not i 
only exist, but take a prominent part in human ; 
affairs. Our life here is part of a great ^ 
universal scheme, and death is merely a trans- 
lation to another sphere of activity. A dying 
person should bo regarded as an emigrant 
who is saying farewell, and we may have every 
conHdence in his future fate, for the universe ; 
is ruled by love. ! 

It is obvious that the very centre of Sii j 
Oliver's philosophy lies in his belief in the 
persistence of human i^ersonality after death, 
and in what he claims to know of the condi 
tions of that after life. The mysteriouL 
universe of modern science is invoked iri 
order to show that there is no conflict between 
such a belief and science. But modern science 
lends no positive support to such a belief. ; 
Indeed, the working hypothesis used by 1 
perhaps the majority of neurologists, that the I 
mind is identical with the nervous system, ir | 
incompatible with that belief. But this hypo 
thfesis is so far from established that it would 
never stand against positive evidence of the 
kind referred to by Sir Oliver. It may per- 
haps be admitted that in the present state of 
scientific knowledge such a belief as that held ' 
by Sir Oliver may rationally be held. But it 
is -a long step from this to holding such a 
belief and the general outlook on life that 
depends on it. Such an outlook as that de- 
scribed by Sir Oliver is not to be called 
scientific unless it rests on evidence that is 
verifiable. It is not scientific if it rests on 
beliefs which, however strong, are not com- 
municable in the ordinary scientific way. In 
view of the importance of {he doctrines advo- 
' cated in the book, we can Quly regret that Sir 
Oliver has not given detailed references to 
unimpeachable evidence justifying them. In 
I lie absence of such evidence he only convinces 
MS that modern science allows room for these 
beliefs, but does nothing to confirm them. 

^OR Advertisements of Booksellers" Catalogues, 
Literary Agents, and matters generally in- 
ing to Literary people, see back page of this 

"Tw^ ^ y-yAr . ^^^-^ f1, Ma>. 

rRAX( IS Thompson, the Poet of Earth in 

Heaven. By R. L. Megroz. (Faber and 

Guyer. I'Is. Cd. net.) 
Francis Thompson and His Poetry. By the 

Rev. T. H. Wright. (Harrap. 2s. net.) 
Francis Thompson. The Aneustan Books of 

Poetry. (Benn. 6d.) 
^ It is a quality peculiar to Dr. Johnson's 
criticism that it seldom fits very exactly the 
writer of whom he is speaking but it often 
fits a writer of whom he never spoke, or who 
came after his time. Thus he said that 
Dryden delighted to tread upon the brink 
of meaning," and again, when speaking of the 
poetic diction before Dry den's time, he says 
that " words to which we are nearly strangers, 
whenever they occur, draw that attention on 
themselves which they should transmit to 
things.'^ These criticisms would be exact and 
just if they were made about Francis Thomp- 
son or about his diction. Mr. Megroz clefencls, 
at some length, Thompson's strangeness of 
diction, repeating, of course, Mrs. Meynell's 
defence of his latinities. But Mr. Megroz's 
own observation that ten times as many 
words could not paraphrase all the ideas in 
these lines : — 

So once, ere Heaven's eyes were filled with wonders 

To see Laughter rise from Tears, 

Lay in beauty not yet miglity, 
Conched in translucencies, 

The antenatal Aphrodite, 

Caved magically under magic seas ; 
Caved dieamlessly beneath the dreamful seas 
seems to be the most complete defence pos- 
sible of Thompson's habit of treading upon 
the brink of meaning and of drawing too much 
attention to words. Thompson had to draw 
attention to single words in order that the 
attention might be transmitted from the single 
word to many things, or to one very great 
thing. He had a great deal to say, and, 
being a poet, he had to say it as s\)ccinctly as 

(possible. The object of his best metaphors 
was to express a large idea, if possible, in one 
word enfolding his meaning; and his meta- 
phors are successful only when this is his aim 
and when he succeeds in it. \Vhen he tried, 
like Sir Thomas Browne, to embellish a simple 
statement with many metaphors and images, 
which are intended to open innumerable paths 
down which the reader's mind may wander, 
then he rarely achieved anything but a vague 
poetic enthusiasm. The paths down which 
such words as argent " and " beamy- 
textured " lead us are usuall3^ blind alleys. 
/ A great deal is packed into Thomp- 
( son's best poetry. Since the poet spent so 
much time in packing it, the critic's task 
Df unpacking it may seem ungrateful and un- 

necessary. But our appreciation of the poetry J 
.very much depends upon observing the dex- 
terity with which the packing is done ; and - 
therefore Mr. Wright's and Mr. Megroz's 
books, which show us all the elements of j 
Thompson's poetry scattered loose about the ' 
floor, are very helpful. Mr. Wright's little 
book in the Poetry and Life series, a series 
whose object is to illustrate the life of the poet 
by his work and to interpret his work in the 
light of his life, gives us a slight sketch of his 
life and ideas. Mr. Megroz also gives some- 
thing of Thompson's life ; but at much greater 
length he gives us a pedigree of his idea.?, with 
several chapters on the poets and writers who 
influenced him, in whose tradition he was. 
To use Mr. Megroz's own metaphor, " the 
theme of the following chapters continually 
widens out, somewhat like a fan, the handle 
of which is the first chapter." As long as the 
widening out is comparable to the impacking 
of the ideas in the poetry, Mr. Megroz's re- 
searches are excellent and relevant ; but at 
times, owing perhaps to the natural enthu- 
siasm of a discoverer, this widening out is 
more easily to be compared with a genealo- 
gical tree. One person has many grand- 
parents and great-grandparents, ancl the tree 
may extend backwards widening out for 
ever, but a knowledge of a person's ancestors 
is not always necessary for a knowledge of 
his character. Nevertheless Mr. Megroz's re 
searches may almost always be-justified when 
it is remembered that Thompson was 
mystical poet. 

For mysticism usuallv appeals only to the 
very simple or to the very learnech You may 

Jeeonie a mystic bv communion with Nature - 
and by cultivating a certain chil d^shnpss"^ 
character " As ^Fr. ATegroz saySj The Tp^^^ 
heart who see Gq ;^ f' htv"^ " i rjirprtur ii n f vininu 

winch is COmmonlv to be nttribntprl to pbild- 

fio nrl. which indeed is the soon-to-be-lost 
heaven of childhood. ' '<'h'^"ip' ' ^n hiniTR 
said Look lor me in the nurseries of heaven." 

But it is also natural lor the mystic to be ex- 
tremely learned, and, indeed, to those who are . 
not mystics the studies of the mystic seem to 
be the most recondite possible. To have read 
the Early Fathers is a fantastic erudition. 
And learning has been lately the mj'stic's chief 
approach to the truths which he is bent on dis- 
covering, as the example of Mr. Yeats will 
show or of Lionel Johnson. Moreover, the 
proper- understanding of a mystical poet is 
often an end to be reached in much the same 
way as the mystic reaches his truths, by 
elaborate historical researches which enable 
the student of a mj'stical poet to get within the 
minds of many i^ast mystics and to put him- 
self in their age, in an age when mysticism, so 
it would seem, was a natural and easy thing. 
If we wish to understand a satirical poet it is 
not necessary to read Juvenal in order to 

appreciate the strange mind of a satirist anv 
more than it is necessary to read Erasmus 
Danvin in order to understand tlie kind of 
mind which can believe in evolution But 
as we read Mr M cgroz s chapt ers on Donnp on 
' I "1 1 si 1 ne^ilM^inl^ii ni«.re"~^ 

II soincthmL^ ol tho niN^stu?;; approach 

lilc ; nor can this hclraint. m anv otheF^V 
t nan r)y tlie studv oTy n^ lllVMlks and i UJv 
wriTings. j-or mysticism is a state of mimT 

and a mystic ( ai. never say a thmg once ^T, 
l or all winch siiail sum up his bclJl^^s snT iff 
they mav he conii)rclu»nsi .1*^ ti.-^o.J *" i 

tn cv may t)e comprehcnsib je to rly.... ^vl^T dp 
u.JniiaiV hU f^la-TcTTI min d. Bu t the more Vh^t 

o ne klimvs ahAut mysiu-s and the morcof thpi. 
wf iuiigs tnat one has read the more cont ^ 

hensjble is their st -it>^ of mind. Tliis compre- 
nension is never complete, any more than is 
the mystic's comprehension of ultimate truths, 
so that the student of mystical poetry will 
tend to research always more and more ex- 
haustively into the past. 

But for all the difficulty of comprehending 
the mystic's attitude to life, it is not Francis 
Thompson's mysticism which is most likely 
to displease but rather his diction. We usually 
accept without fully understanding a poetry 
like this : — 

But (when so ?acl thou canst not sadder) 
Cry ; — and upon thy so sore loss 

Sliall sliine the traltic of Jacob's ladder 

Pitched between Heaven and Charing Cross. 
We know that the mystic can feel heaven 
near to Charing Cross ; we may not under- 
stand why or how, but the imaginative idea is 
magniticent and we are content to leave it at 
that. But we cannot so readily accept such a 
phrase as " coerule empery." It is not i 
possible to defend it by saying that only 
by such strange words could Thompson 
have expressed a strange and far-reaching 
idea, since a synonym for the phrase is easy 
to find. The sole purpose of such diction is to J ' 
put the reader in a poetic frame of mind. Iff 
such strange words did in fact, after putting 
the reader in a poetic frame of mind, lead his 
imagination down strange paths, in the same 
way as Browne takes the reader's mind to the 
Antipodes merely by saying in a particular 
way that it is time to cease writing and go to 
bed, they would, of course, be justifiable. But 
the word " coerule " seems as if it would lead 
the reader a long way, and yet when he is pre- 
pared for this journey he can go no farther in 
fact than to where the word " blue " would 
lead him. Thompson, we are told, when at the 
age of seven he read poetry, used to take his 
Shakespeare or his Coleridge and sit on the 
stairs '* awciy from the constraint of tables and 
chairs and the unemotional flatness of the 
floor." No doubt *' coerule empery " comes % 
from the dislike of unemotional flatness which I 
was characteristic of Thompson throughout his I 
life. But it is never safe to condemn carelessly 

any strange word of -Thompson's, and the 
practice of his faults often led to great 
beauties which could not have come perhaps 
any other way 

Across tlie inargent of the world I fled, 
And troubled the gold gateways of the stars. 
Smiting for shelter on their clanged bars. 

Here, by the one coined word " clanged," he 
has expressed in the noise of their meeting that 
the gates were shut to him, and also the 
vehemence of that inhos])itality. 

The selection of Thompson's poetry in the 
admirable Augustan Books of English poetry 
contains many of the best of his poems, such 
as " The Kingdom of Heaven," the " Ode to 
the Setting Sun," and " To a poet brea^king 
silence." Mr. Humbert Wolfe contributes a 
short prefatory notice, which, though as en- 
thusiastic as Thompson's own criticism of 
Shelley, is an excellent and just panegj-ric. 


17 6. 

(P — ^ 

O— ^L-^^,,^.^.,»^fc^ *-^^^Xy^ 

fW ^ 





3 ^ 


Sir w„^JU5 c-.^^ fcc^ 


1 - 

;583-N Madison Avenue 

New York City 


A new and original study by Emanuel Kanter, author of 
THE AMAZONS. It explains in a novel fashion the economic 
and social causes that produce war. It points out the weakness of 
present-day pacifism, and shows the social changes that must precede 
the complete elimination of war. Ample historical data are cited 
to support the author's theories. 

Cloth, $1.00, by mail or at bookstores. 
CHARLES H. KERR & CO., 347 East Ohio Street, Chicago 

I New Psychological Magazine 
- rtossible ff\r ^ . . , 

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l_x. , ^^^^^^ c_ iw . ^.o. , 




ated to contemporary 

iticism, as shown by 
,d at the N.R.F. Mae- 
eaubriant about Hol- 
er's list of forthcom- 
nardi will solve the 
ate the figure of con- 
•atures will be painted 
opses started by Kra. 
■vnce, Emile Paul has 
favorite town; after 
,Ue" of Jaloux we may 

vidly present than in 
'ch Kra has revealed 
go on with stories by 
"Nicolas Belavoir" is 
j th letters by Rimbaud. 
I iry of Delacroix, Kra a 
Marie-Antoinette, and 
se. Our contemporaries 
V all about the lives of 
(Arts et Livre), of the 
ind Maurice Chevalier 
Tosephine Baker (Kra). 


A Frenchman Takes a Look 

. • r.^r. of Aac- a French Analysis. By P^nir6 Siee- 
America Comes of Apt. ' „,. «ii 

«ed. Harcourt, Brace ana ^^^^ 

T"'", 'rend li n can t d a" n.le xnisstate.ent of fact, 

process Dr. Siegfried amassed his ^.^^^ iggg, ^^i 

has been in the United S^^^ ^' yf"""^ tour. His 

Americans. He would nave „„id— a champion related 

paper reporter ever ^eard of m tms ^^^^^^ ^.^^^^ 

to Ray Stannard Baker as Baker, ^^^^^^^ Washington 

blather fetched him, was ,. the Ecole Libre 

correspondent. For he went ^'7;*°^'^; /^^^ ^^pfnetrating, and 
des Sciences Pol t-Ques with ever written, 

comprehensive treatise °" ^^J^^^'^'compared to it the cele- 
whether by a native or a f^^'S"^'' . , J j^e level of a text- 

that is so copiously on UP -0^. - He^y. ^^^^^^^^^ 
the campaign o^J^^ors say, in ^^^^^ .^^ ^^^sent 

ingenuity that have brought the Un ^ ^.^ 

high place among the nauons, but nei^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

ficulties ahead 1"*""^"^^ irreconcilable conflict between 
around the bitter and ^PP'"^'="7 „,^er varieties of Amen- 
: the so-called Anglo-Saxons and ^ -wer^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

AngK^Saxon, clothed m ^"-^ ' ^/'t^^t own melting-pot. That 
God's elect," simply refuses to go into his o ^^..icans of 

1 i= rp>ierved for the exclusive use 01 xne 
vessel IS reserved 10 docilely, and to come out 

other races. It ^f^'^"*^ *° having emerged, it is their 

of this arrangement, nor does he beUeve "'-t^ Americans 
The non-AngloSaxon, non-Protestant non ^^^^ 
are not actually inferior; on ^^^^^^ the Anglo- 
clearly superior. They immensely valu- 

Saxons lack, and some ^'^^f ^j,e disadvantages that 
able. Thus they begin to ^^^'^^J^^ effort to make those 
Ue upon them, and to ^^^^Jj ^^^^[^^^t all the varieties of 

disadvantages sr^flJ^^^^'Zi went on during the late war 

-r;r^r^^^s5^— ^^^^ 

been to set up ^'i^^P;,f;,'„ f^an K»ttur. And it is surely 
tion, but -l=o/S^\"^V^he Ku Khix uproar has been followed by 
rfl"rr::rseH::stnd deUin^d effort to put a Catholic 

into the White House. „,oDhecv as to the ultimate 

Dr. Siegfried ventures up „ no pr p^^^^^^ 
issue of this conflict, ^hat will come 

know. The Anf-^-^^^^ional her" have the advantage of 
capable of producmg ^."ff ' "adition, but they show a decreas- 
numbers and the support «£ t^"' coolidge beside Al 

ing capacity for genuine leadersmp. 


The Na 

Smith, and a certain diiTcrence begins to be palpable— or, if you ' 

choose, put Dr. John Roach Straton beside the Irish archbishops, t 

or Booth Tarkington beside Dreiser, or R. A. Millikan, with his ; 
lingering theological sentimentality, beside, say, Jacques Loeb. 
The new immigration laws will hold down the influx of Loebs 
and Dreisers, but what of their effect, in the long run, upon the 
lower orders of Anglo-Saxons? What will happen when the 

Mexican Landviehr, now manning the ditches, is exhausted? The ; 

answer, perhaps, is to be found in the South, whence the blacks — ' 

have begun to flee. The Anglo-Saxon, though Protestant and i 

imperial, already has the hoe in his hands. < 

Dr. Siegfried is an economist, and is thus greatly inter- f 

estcd in our mass production. Its virtues are manifest: it has r 

brought us the greatest prosperity ever recorded in history. But si 

in the long run it may carry us into very serious difficulties. no 

Its excess profits we now invest in loans to Europe, and at the of 

same time we shut our doors to the goods which represent Eu- up 

rope's only capacity to pay us our interest and refund our prin- tr 

cipal. Obviously, the money must be raised by selling those pi 

goods in other markets. But, soon or late, our ever-increasing Ai 

production will force us into those markets ourselves, and then t 

will ensue a gigantic struggle. If Europe wins, we'll lose the ( 

markets but get our money. If Europe is beaten, we'll win the 1 

markets but lose our money. Dr. Siegfried apparently suspects t 

that we'll be beaten. The machine has conquered in America, r 
but the rest of the world still distrusts its products. In any 

case, there will be hard problems for the Coolidges and Mellons ; 

of the next generation. £. 

"America Comes of Age" is far too complicated a book to I 

be summarized. The thoughts that I have dredged out of it are J 

not adequately representative of it. Dr. Siegfried must be read r 

at length. He has crowded an enormous mass of facts into his c' 

volume and illuminated them with an unfailing sagacity. There c 

is no evident intent in him to argue anything or to prove any- 1 

thing, but nevertheless he argues with great skill and proves a f 

lot. Behind even his lightest obiter dicta there lies a back- t 

ground of sound and extensive knowledge. He has a prejudice, f 

I suspect, against Puritans, but it certainly does not cause him pi 

to underestimate them. The American spectacle plainly exhila- p 

rates him. He is sensitive to its novelty, to its romantic charm, t 

and to its overwhelming dramatic intensity. He must have en- ii 

joyed himself superbly when he was in our palpitating midst. t 

But he was not fooled. H. L. Mencken c' 

Along the Rhine 

The Rhineland Occttpatwn. By Henry T. Allen. The Bobbs- p 

Merrill Company. $5. ^ 

The Struggle for the Rhine. By Hermann Stegemann. Trans- ^ 

lated by Georges Chatterton-Hill. Alfred A. Knopf. $6. ^ 

GENERAL ALLEN'S first book, "My Rhineland Journal," tl 

rendered fine service to the cause of truth and international a' 

understanding. The present volume is a valuable companion. p' 

With the detachment of the historian and with military clarity b{ 

of style, General Allen here sets forth the events of those criti- a; 

cal days when the American forces in Rhineland (together with tl 

those of Great Britain) stood in the eyes of the world for fair nj 

play. It was then the difficult role of the leaders to act as a T, 

brake on headstrong French imperialism. The present reviewer, ! 

who played a minor role on the same stage as General Allen, p|. 

can testify to the general accuracy and impartiality of his rec- te 

ord. It is easy to see that he tends to find the French attractive tK 

and the Germans the reverse. He enters Rhineland as a vie- tK 

torious soldier, prepared to apply a rigorous system of military ai 

rule to the defeated population. His very freedom from "pro- tl; 

German" and pacifist sentiments adds weight to the damning hi 

indictment of French policy which his sense of justice compels pt 

him to set forth here with admirable detachment. al 
"The Left Bank of the Rhine," writes General Allen in his 

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-aov. xux x^Limouriez, who had muiv. 
. pinch of the dust that was in Napoleon.) 
Mr. Bridge writes from the point of view of the 
teacher, and protests strongly against the atti- 
tude of some of our teachers of history in every 
grade with regard to war ; that future war 
will be best avoided either by refusing to study 
past wars, or by treating them as equally vile 
in their initiation and in their conduct and 
effect. If ^he sa ys, we simply tell the young 
that war is a crmfe, then, they will reason, 
soldiers must be criminals, which clearly they . 
'^■^\not. "Where so many historians of wars, 
- espefflllv those who have written for the | 
3'oung, have erred has been in not sufBciently I 
examining their causes. To take a single in- I 
stance : if there be one institution of the paiit * 
which the average English schoolboy is taught 
to regard with horror, not merely from a 
patriotic but from a moral point of view, it is 
the Catholic League of France. What will he 
make of the words of Maurice Barres, writing 
of his countrymen of Loraine ? : — 

Et comme nous avons arrete I'lslam, nous avoT^' 
servi de rempart, axf^^ ^ " ' -'np pf " 

L^SX ^~Jl^ 

-^^J^ — ^ ^-^^-^ 


Averill. Colored frontispiece and many illustrations by Japanese 
artists. New Edition. 8vo. $2.50 

''Japanese Flower Arrangement" explains the Japanese method of 
arranging cut flowers. The Japanese have developed a very beauti- 
ful system difierent from our western one, 
which makes all flowers arranged by their 
rules appear natural, the flowers seeming to 
grow in the vase in which they are placed. 
^^^^^J|a Their idea of the beauty and balance of line 

^^^BE^ wmM^ surpasses all other methods. 
Jf^/fSgf^^ This little book is fully illustrated by 
Japanese artists, and will be interesting to 
lovers of flowers, and of practical value to 
those who arrange their own. 

"Japanese Flower Arrangement.' 
edition. 8vo. 

By Mary Averill, author of 
Profusely illustrated. New 


To those who have read her exquisite "Japanese Flower Arrange- 
ment," Miss Averill needs no introduction. It was owing to the 
keen interest aroused by her first book, and the thirst of her readers 
and students for further knowledge on the subject, that Miss Averill 
returned to Japan in search of new material for her second bo^ 
"The Flower Art of Japan." , ^ V>*-.*^ 





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its of 
lat he 

to acc doing as much goou .iC 

could foi -.iC subject races in it. He was not concerned 
with the opinions of men. Life was too short and too 
valuable to swerve from duty on account of public opinion. 
"How pitiful a thing," he says in his Compromise, "seems 
the approval or disapproval of these creatures of the con- 
vention of the hour, as one figures the merciless vastness 
of the universe of matter sweeping us headlong through 
viewless space; as one counts the little tale of the years 
that separate us from eternal silence. In the light of these 
things a man should surely dare to live his life \vith little 
heed of the common speech upon him or his life, only car- 
ing that his days may be full of reality and his conversation 
of truth speaking and wholeness." 

A. L. Sachar. 

always went bact^ lo .i^s,. 
* what he denounced as the improDitj 
c of loud disputes and weak convictions. The 
alumes just published, comprising the definitive edition 
his works, tell on every glittering page of his stem contempt 
for all manner of intellectual apprehension. His attack on 
the "man of the w^orld," in the volume on Voltaire, is one 
of his best philippics. 'Who does not know this temper 
of the man of the world, the worst enemy of the world? 
His inexhaustible patience of abuses that only torment 
others, his apologetic word for beliefs that may perhaps 
not be so precisely true as one might wish, and institutions 
that are not altogether so useful as some might think possi- 
ble; his cordiality towards progress and improvement in a 
general way, and his coldness or antipathy to each pro- 
gressive proposal in particular; his pygmy hope that life 
will one day become somew^hat better, punily shivering by 
the side of his gigantic conviction that it might well be 
infinitely worse." 

These logical warriors invariably create trouble for the 
conservative, and Morley soon aroused considerable op- 


*l I * • 


^ e 





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/"t- _ 

/ — ' 


'-f<^ "ftQ ^ -2-^ 'ii-^' oiUA,j? 

e — Sl 

the faith they live by is dependent 
upon the chances of historical evi- 
dence or belief in the occurrence or 
non-occurrence of certain events in 
the outward world-order ponder on 
the implied argument of this story, 
whether sermon or satire, I do not 
know to this day. 

My third recollection is concerned 
with Jesus as a social reformer. At 
a §ummer school in, England, largely 
attended by Quakers, I once had the 
privilege ^of listening to^an argument 
between "the advocates of "applied 
Christianity'* as being the religion of 
the master, and that prince among 
modem religious thinkers. Baron 
Friedrich von Hugel. Some one had 
produced a pet scheme for "Christian- 
izing the industrial order," "intro- 
ducing the spirit of Jesus into inter- 
national relations" or some other 
nostrum of the moment. - I shnll 
never forget the old baron's onslaught 
upon the terrified group of social 

"Do you ii^agine," he cried, "that 
with your leagues of nations, your 
industrial councils, your wage-boards, 
and other (devices of social improve- 
ment, you are going to make the spirit 
V I of Jesi^g at home i;n the modem world, 
or in any wol^lcTof weak human beings? 
Jesus is not, and never can be, at home 
in the world; nor can the world be 
wrenched out of its framework to be 
accommodated to his way of living 
and thinking. Jesus lives on another 
! plane from that of the social reformer. 
Ascend into his kingdom as often as 
you can, make it, if you dare, the 
familiar home of your spirit, in solitude 
or in the intimacy of tme companion- 
ship: but do not imagine that, by 
applying the best efforts of your 
organizing intelligence to adjust the 

political and social problems of our 
large-scale, inhuman, de-personalized 
modem world, you are following in 
the footsteps of Jesus. Go, do your 
work, but do it without illusions. For 
if you think you have Jesus with you 
in Whitehall or in Geneva, you risk 
not finding your way back to his 
kingdom." Such, if I remember right, 
was the substance of the baron's out- 
A burst; for one hearer, at least, it 
marked an epoch in the understanding 
of Jesus. 

Schweitzer, who has abandoned a 
distinguished career in the academic 
world to work as a medical missionary 
in West Africa, echoes the baron's 
thought in a striking passage in the 
second edition of his book. "Do 
not attempt," he exclaims, "to make 
an artificial adjustment between the 
teaching of Jesus and our modem 
social ethics. The teaching of Jesus 
is fundamentally individuahstic and 
unworldly: it pays no heed to the 
established values and purposes of 
the world and demands only the abso- 
lute inner perfection of the individual. 
The attempt to deduce our ethical 
■'system as a whole from that pro- 
claiitied by Jesus is senseless and mis- 
taken.^ It can only lead to a dis- 
tortion of the teaching of Jesus into 
something appHcable to our own time. 
Our modem social ethics, like our 
metaphysics and our general philos- 
ophy of the world, must be arrived at 
through the processes of our own rea- 
son and built up according to their own 
natural and immanent laws. Jesus 
can no more be the foundation of 
our ethics than of our religion. He 
can only supply one element, though 
a powerful and determined element, 
in them. . . . Jesus' all-powerful 
claims of unworldliness and the inner 

perfection of the personality are in 
standing conflict with every kind of 
reasonable or social ethics, although, 
in the last analysis, the claims of 
Jesus are themselves reasonable, be- 
cause it is only the man who has in 
his own soul overcome the world and 
freed himself from its obsession who 
can be effective as an ethical force in 
the world. If Jesus were to return to 
the world to-day, his thought would 
no longer move along the lines of the 
later Jewish eschatology, but the 
basis of his ethical thinking would be 
the same now as then; in face of the 
philosophical, theological, nationalist 
and social ethics which make up our 
modem 'system,' he would repeat: 
'If your righteousness be not better 
than that of the scribes and Pharisees, 
ye cannot enter into the Kingdom of 
Heaven,* and would demand abso- 
lute perfection and absolute devotion. 
That is why it is futile to attempt to 
bring the ethics of Jesus into line with 
our modem system." 

§ 4 

We are forced back, then, to the 
real problem, the problem, not of 
what Jesus did, but of what he was, 
the problem of the personality, the 
consciousness, the inner life, the psy- 
chology, of Jesus. And, to study that 
problem, we have, as for Plato and 
Shakspere, Dante and Goethe, the 
evidence not of outward activities and 
social milieu, but of what we rightly 
entitle in the case of artists and 
thinkers, their works. That Goethe 
was a Geheimrat, Shakspere a War- 
wickshire gentleman, Dante a Floren- 
tine aristocrat, that Plato lived at 
Athens, tells us less than nothing 
about them. It is by their works, 
that is, by their surviving thoughts. 

that we alone can know them. "My 
teachings and writings," says Plato, 
in one of his letters, "are only the 
smallest part of myself: they are but 
sparks from the fire buming within." 
Tme; but they are live sparks, real 
indications of personaHty, far more 
real than the extemal facts of biog- 
raphy, whether measurements of the 
Globe Theater or the record of Flor- 
entine factions or a faithful descrip- 
tion of the society of Capemaum or 

In the case of Jesus the negative 
results of historical inquiry coincide 
with a remarkable advance in the 
study of human nature and person- 
ality. If the nineteenth century will 
live in intellectual history as the 
century of natural science and of the 
application of the methods of the 
natural sciences to human studies such 
as history, archaeology, and sociology, 
the twentieth century bids fair to be 
an age of psychology, of subtle and 
intimate investigation into the inner 
life of men and nations. Immense 
and hitherto undreamed-of advances 
have already been made in the last two 
decades in the understanding of the 
inner springs of human nature. To 
take but a single instance, we have 
been made aware of the whole world 
of sub-consciousness which lies, often 
tumultuous and repressed, always 
alive and contributing ceaselessly to 
our personality, below the level of our 
conscious mental life. Thus it is but 
natural that the psychological method 
should have been applied to the study 
of Jesus. For some time past there 
has been a growing tendency in books 
about Jesus to include a psychological 
chapter; and a number of writers, 
among whom Sanday deserves par- 
ticular mention, have dealt specifically 



■5 ^ 




published by 



With 12 Reproductions from Blake's Original Drawings. 
Foolscap 4to, Cloth, los. 6d. net. 

A careful and sympathetic study of Blake's life, work and methods, sufficiently 
full to satisfy those who wish to obtain a clear idea of Blake's position in 
literature and art, and full of suggestions for further study of the subject. 

CONTENTS. — Preface. Childhood and Apprenticeship. Coming of Age and Marriage. 
The Blue-Stockings. Early Married Life and Early Work. Wesley, Whitefield, Lavater, 
and Swedenborg. The Rebels. Action and Reaction. William Hayley. The Big 
Prophetic Books. Cromek, Sir Joshua, Stothard, and Chaucer. The Supreme Vision. 
Declining Years and Death. Epilogue. Index. 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.— The Burial of Moses. Glad Day. Lavater. The 
Ancient of Days. Urizen in Chains. Los. Mirth and Her Companions. Albion, 
The Prayer of the Infant Jesus. Job Series, Design V. Job Series, Design XIV. From 
Dante Series. 


& 8t-'- '">"er s, 


Please Su 

No. ot copies 

MARRIAGE OF HEAVEN AND HELL (facsimile edition 21/-*) 
INTRODUCTION TO BLAKE. By max plowman. (4/6*) 
BLAKE'S BOOK OF JOB. By j. h. wicksteed (10/6*) 
WILLIAM BLAKE— THE MAN. By charles Gardner (10/6*) 


*All prices net and postage extra. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd. London, W.C. 2 

i'lUited in Great Britain by Kowell & Sons, London. 


1 y 

''^v i '■'Tarv 

" z::^^ps-«'-«Ji^ ^ ^ ^^^^^ 




5i ^ bt^ 

-t^X. ^ <^ --yjt 

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o- ^ 




books wliicti made the luune. 
about them with such piuisc 
find m our hearts to pive ; but thi^ 

■ise after a sIo\ 
of then- work 
v\on. Wh.-Mi 

number of books lias been devutL-d to 
the study of his poetry, his art. Ins 
thoug}it and symbohsm ; and not only in 
England. Two years ago we were given at 
last a complete edition of Blake s writings, 
in an accurate and authoritative text, the 
work of Mr. Geoffrey Keynes. And now we 
have, to celebrate Blake s centenary, a one- 
volume edition of the writings on thin paper, 
delightfully printed and got-up. varying a 
httlo from the l'J25 edition both in the text 
and m thf ill 1 an' < tiH iit nt it Im- reasons given 
bv Mr. Krx f. . ■ . 1 I M . but complete ; 
and we hn\. . !! ■ , i Nuiiesuch Press, 
and unilMLi-i ■. M K. ,in -s first edition 
of the writiii-^ a n>-\v liie work of Miss 
Mona Wilson. 

The full liglit oi day has at length been 
thrown on Blakes achievement. The Pro- 
phetic Books, for so long accessible only in tlie 
tew copies printed by their author, or. in the 
case of "The Four Zoas." in the original 
manuscript, are now available in ordinary 
tvpe- Mr. Plowman has included most of 
them in his excellent cheap edition of the 
Poems and Prophecies in Everyman s Library. 
Thanks to the labours of Mr. Foster Damon, 
following up tlie pioneer work oi Swinburne s 
famous essay and tlie elaborate commentaries 
of Ellis and \eats. the .symbolism of Blakes 
Myth has Ihm-.i madf clear, at least 

G. P. R. 

have pul.ili-li' < I ' ' ■ ■ 

prophetic W]iUnu>\ a \aliia)jl^' v 'U.i- 

ance of symbols. Mr. AVicksteed has thrown 
a beam of unexpected light on the symbolism 
of the Illustrations of the Book of Job. 
Blake s work as a painter and engraver has 
been reproduced in successive publications 
with extraordinary fullness. The tune seems 
therefore to have come when we may attempt 
an estimate of Blake s gcmus and the worth 
of his varied achievement. 

But at once we feel that this is just what 
we cannot do. At least, we cannot sit down 
and appraise his work in the way in which 
we appraise the work ot his ^Teat cunti'm- 
jporari-?s. We have first to make up our minds 

• ariiial a i ■! 1 1 1 ■ m a n > a i L 1 1 r i l') 1 1 ■ 1 1 ir m and enlarging 

i MM. .1 . .1 I, :i. r I ■ .1 - 1-aradise Lost 

I ! ! Mid vieldmg pro- 

.,t il (l. lail- y ( li do \\r value the artist most 
tor what he communicates, ior the quickening 
of our spiritual life, for the challenge to our 
lethareies and selt-deceptions. though his 
actual work may be imperfect and inadequate 
, . for serene contemplation ? The world, per- 
'ihaps rightly, has hitherto decided in favour of 
'the masterpieces. Blake is of that other kind. 

miijcrleetioiis cheerluUy because that ex- » 
penence is so precious and so in.spiring. ( 
BInkf s nelual production has been often over- 
r-hni,H.M| >ninetimes absurdly overestimated. 
I II I I', iliiise who think that his fame has 

I I n die rarity and obscurity of his 

w hk! now that they are known and 
Kri^-iltlf I,, all. would predict that his faiup 
will diminisli. We cannot agree. M'e dou),' 
it the day will ever come when a final e>n 
mate of Blake will be made and the wuiM 
will •^(■ttlr down to a comfortable orthodoxy oi 
.-n M. ■ ..n iiis merits. Till recently, he has 
much the worship of a 'sect, of 

' I - ' aliius of their initiation-rites.- Now 
iliai in lias been rescued from his illuminated 
and exclusive chapel, he appears as a prophet 
of wliose words this age and every age has 
need. His genius is not embodied in master- 
pieces aloof from the stress and hurry of daily 
existence. He is among us. sowing seeds of 
living thought and fiery challenge. 

Above all Blake s works stands his life. 
That indeed we may contemplate as we con- 
template a masterpiece. Many philosophers 
have held that the world of sense is unreal.^ 
that the world of the mmd and the .'ipirit i?" 

A man. as ho says hunselt, of no imagination, 
he was perpetually intrigued and held by 
Blake's conversation. He admired and paid 
homage, in spite of his prejudices. English 
Blake was as unlike the average Englishman 
as anyone could conceive. But ho appealed 
to the typical English nature in Crabb Robin- 
son, just because (we suggest) of tliai IcH ui 
tegrity of mind and character, win. li ; a ! i 
impossible to set aside what seem ' I I 

William Blake 
of Heaven ana 

lir books do not achieve ■ the [ 
I < -cntial to great art. troubled as J 

\ ai. i.\ die strivings of the mystic on his f 
way lo lll^ -oid. Blake himself admitted that : 
in his last years he was writing only tor his own 
spiritual relief and no longer even desired 
readers. It will be seen that Miss Wilson, 
though her admiration and love for Blake are 
profound, does not do Blake the disservice of 
praising him for what he did not achieve and 
for qualities he did not possess. Mr. Damon, 
for instance, to whom all students of Blake-; 
ideas are deeply in debt, became so intoxi- 
cated with the prophetic writings as to lose 
all sense of poetic quality. He tries to per- 
suade us that ■ Jerusalem is one of the great 
poems of tiie world. But we remember how in 
he chances to quote Milton s 

of that sL- 
adequacy of 

organized articulation, become apparent. 

Mr. Max Plowman, we suspect, is rather 
inclined to views like Mr. Damon s. He says, 
for instance, that " ' Thel is perhaps the most 
beautiful narrative poem ever written. Such 
excessive judgments, however, are not obtruded 
in his " Introduction to the Study of Blake, 
a httle book which in its sympathetic insight 
IS as illuminating an aid to the understanding 
of Blake s mam ideas as could be wished. W e 
especially like Mr. Plowman s refusal to allow 
I hilt a complete key to Blake s mind has been 
1 iind or is ever likely to be found. &o much 
Mi|iliasis has been laid on Blakes abhorrence 

111 hi.s mes.sage to mankind, that we welcome 
Mr. Plowman's concentration on Blake s posi- 
tive and creative doctrine. 

And what was the doctrine of this man 
whom so many have dismissed as un- 

balanced and insane ? It was a passion- 
ate plea ior the recognition of the unity* 
of man s spiritual nature, of the wholeness of' 
man who is m a fallen state whenever he' 
allows one element or another, whether it be' 
reason or sentiment or sensuality, to usurp! 
dominion over the rest. I he redeeming power t 
which lifts him horn that fallen state and! 
unifies all his faculties is imagination. W^ei 
commend to the reader Mr. Plowman s chapter 
on imagination, that word used to mean so 
many and contrary things, and on Blakes, 
conception of it : " the world of imagination is t 
the world of eternity. ' Imagination alone. f 
liberates us from the prison of selfhood, and j 
makes possible that forgiveness of sins which / 
men find so difficult a precept to receive ■ 
and try to evade or circumvent by compro- I 
inises and conditions. AVithout the self-trans- 1 

praise the practice of a 
insists, "his traffic bet\^ 
was not impeded by tlir 
a spiritual and art 

need not the 

Librnrj'. [Deut. '^a. net.) 


Pencil Drawings by William Blaee. 
Edited by Gb^offrey Keynes. (The ^one- \ 
such Press. 35s. net.) 
The Book of Job : With the Twenty-tAVO 
Engravings of William Blake. (Benn. 
12s. 6d. net.) 
It is, as Mr. Geoffrey Keynes says, surpris- 
ing that Blake's pencil drawings have hitherto 
been regarded as of minor importance. Mr. 
Keynes "^calls them the firstfruits of his 
imagination"'; and indeed most of them are 
even more completely typical of Blake than 
his engravinss, his woodcuts, or even his water- 
colour drawings. For, like his tempera pic- 
tures, thev are the product only of Blake s 
individuality, and they show no traces of those 
mannerisms"^ borrowed either from Flaxman or 
from the romantic conceptions of his tini^ 
which sometimes obtrude upon his other work. 
"Poetry,^' Blake said, "consists in bold, 
daring, and masterly conceptions; and shall 
painting be confined to the sordid drudgery ot 
facsimile representations of merely mortal and 
perishing substances, and not be, as music and 
poetry are, elevated into its own proper sphere 
of invention and visionary conception ? Aiid 
again, he called the making of portraits 
and studies from models " copying nature, 
and said that this smelt of mortality. ' VVe 
are here not far from Cezanne, who called 
the kind of art for which Blake thus expressed 
his dislike " stupid imitation," although it is 
true that he and Blake would not have agi-eed 
about what was this stupid and mortal kind ot 
art and what was not. 

Blake's pencil drawings are admittedly the 
firstfruits of his imagination ; but it is also 
true that they are the firstfruits of his sensi- 
bility, and are therefore most useful to anyone 
who wishes to consider the nature of his sensi- 
bility. In these drawings, many of which are 
designs for engravings and water-colours tor 
here are reproduced sixteen drawings for his 
woodcut illustrations to Thornton's Virgil and 
his drawings for the illustrations of^the Book 
of Job — his figures are never like Flaxman s, 
the tendrils of plants and the involutions ot 
clouds are free and unhampered, and his sense 
of design is unchecked. Here, then, his mind, 
which was filled with BibHcal and mytho- 
logical images, is free from that curious accu- 
racy which sometimes comes into his more 
finished work, and sometimes makes his i:nages 
too rigidly symbolic. And also his sensibility 
is free from the romantic conceptions of his 
time and from the demands of the kind of 
illustration which he was set to do and which 

j he disliked, as, for example, his illustrations 
to Gray's poems. His drawings of woodcuts 
for Thornton's Virgil are certainly very beau- 
tiful, but his drawings for these woodcuts are 
much more like Blake — they are more spon- 
taneous, and he abandons himself, even in 
I these tiny drawings, to his liking for exube- 
I rant tendrils and figures that twine about like 
j vegetation. It is precisely this abandonment 
: to linear rhythm, in which his figures and 
' clouds and vegetation become so like each 
other, which is most native to his sensibility. 
This sensibility is scarcely ever exercised 
' upon nature. Mr. Keynes reproduces one accu- 
: rate academic study from a model in this 
! book; and though this drawing is academic in 
the right sense of the word, there have been 
many artists who could have done better than 
this, especially those artists who perceive in 
some object a rhythm and seek to put it down 
on paper with their attention rather upon the 
thing which they are drawing than upon the 
drawing which they are making. Blake never 
seems thus to have drawn his rhythm out of a 
real object which he was copying, except per- 
haps in his drawings of visionary heads. Hero 
he seemed, according to Varley, who en- 
couraged him to do these heads, to have had a 
real image before him ; for when he was draw- 
ing his famous Ghost of a Flea," he left off, 
and began on another part of the paper to make 
a separate drawing of the mouth of the flea, 
which the spirit having opened, he was pre- 
vented from proceeding with the first sketch 
till he had closed it." It is a curious story, 
but it would be unwise to make any deductions 
from it about his general method of working, 
since Mr. Kejaies says that this was probably 
only an amusing game. In general Blake 
kept his attention upon the drawing which he 
was making and his sensibility was directed 
towards the actual lines which he was setting 
on paper. When an artist does this it often 
results in a kind of articulated stiffness, as if 
he were making a working model of a real 
object ; but Blake's drawings show that this is 
not necessary, for he went precisely in the 
opposite direction, and, instead of building up 
a slow rhythm, swirled his lines about with 
even more freedom and swiftness than the 
artist commonly does who takes his ihythm.s 
from nature. It was in this way that Blake 
showed his powers of draughtsmanship, and no 
doubt his imagination helped him in many 
ways to do this. 

It is interesting to compare the drawings 
for the illustrations to the Book of Job with the 
illustrations themselves, which are very well re- 
produced, though smaller than in the original. 
In this edition the text of the Book of Job is 
r»rinted iDCside them. The pencil drawings are 

'freer, but Blake had here a subject so native 
to his genius that the needs of careful and 
finished engravinj- scarcely hampered him. 
His imagination was able to make concrete and 
visible those magnificent BibHcal images, the 
morning stars singing together, the spirit pass- 
ing before the face of Job, which were so native 
to his mind, as they had been the first channel 
of imagination and a means of liberation 
throughout the eighteenlh centurj-, when so 
many other channels were closed. 

J > 



V ^ 


The Analysis of Matter. By Bertrand 
Russell. (Kegan Paul. 21s. net.) 
So long as the world of physics differed but 
little from the world of common sense the ques- 
tion of its " reality " was not felt to be urgent. 
Indeed, it was granted, on the whole, that the | 
world of physics was more real than the world i 
of common sense, for the common-sense world [ 
includes " secondary qualities," colours, ; 
sounds and so on, which, on the generally 
accepted view, were somewhat illusory and not 
part of the objectively existing universe. The 
scientific world of atoms and molecules moving 
about in various complicated ways, and some- 
times producing vibrations in a universal 
sether, was a clear and definite world, and, 
although startlingly unlike the world of per- 
ception, did not, as we see now, offend certain 
cardinal common-sense prejudices. Th^sc 
prejudices may be summarized as belief in 
matter as an enduring substance moving 
through a static space in a uniformly flowing 
time. These were the cardinal assumptions of 
a rather sophisticated common sense shared 
by educated men, and they w^ere the 
cardinal assumptions of physics. Now that 
physics employs entirely different funda- 
mental terms its world has become so remote 
from the world of common sense that our 
normal habits of thought are more of a hind- 
rance than a help in realizing it, and therefore 
a whole series of questions becomes urgent. In 
his present brilliant book Mr. Russell attempts 
to define and answer these ciuestions. 

In orcler to understand the relations between 
the world in which we normally live and the 
world of modern physics we must first know j 
something about modern physics. Unfortu- j 
nately the leading ideas of modern physics are , 
still so new and, in a way, undigested that | 
they can only be presented in their present ! 
highly technical shapes. The reader will dis- 
cover what is involved directly he begins to 
read Mr. Russell's book. Mr. Russell assumes 
that the reader is educated in the modern 
sense — so modern that it might be called 
futuristic — and he uses integrals and refers to 
Fourier's series with the same nonchalance 
with which more old-fashioned philosophers 
refer to the Platonic Ideas. Later on he makes 
a good deal of use of the powerful but fatiguing 
apparatus of mathematical logic. The whole 
of this mathematical display is necessary and 
the problems concerned are of great import- 
ance to philosophers. It seems, therefore, that 
philosophy is ra])idly becoming a subject that 
the majority of philosophers will be unable to 
understand. But the }:)hilosopher3 who are 

competent to concern tiiemselves witii these 
problems will probably reach results of great 
importance, not only to philosophy but to 
science. Scientific men have recently 
developed a Cjuite remarkable aptitude for 
doing their own philosophizing, but physics is 
at present in great need of more work of this 
kind. A great deal of work can be done by 
allowing mathematics to lead one by the nose, 
but there comes a time, as Maxwell long ago 
remarked, when one feels the need to replace 
symbols by clear ideas. For his realization of 
this need and his attempt to meet it Mr. 
Russell, in this book, deserves high praise. He 
has least that is illuminating to sa.y, as was to 
be expected, when he is discussing the most 
recent developments of the quantum theor\\ 
The old-fashioned form of the theory, that 
energy is only radiated or absorbed in finite 
" packets," was comparatively straightforward. 
It appears to be incompatible with some pheno- 
mena and to be necessary to the explanation 
of others. One could employ both it and the 
apparently contradictory undulatory theory 
and hope that, after all, all was right with 
the world. On the basis of this theory one 
obtained a strange but very pretty picture of 
the atom, and, in the very simplest cases, one 
was able to account for the properties of that 
elusive entitj-. But the most recent writers 
tell us that these atomic models have no 
physical meaning and are of no physical im- 
portance."- Instead of our picture of the atom 
as consisting of a number of electrons rotating 
about a nucleus and jumping about, in the 
most enigmatic manner, from one orbit to 
another, we have to consider the atom as a 
doubly infinite number of numbers arranged 
in an infinite " matrix." This matrix con- 
tains all that wo really know about the atom. 
Our pictures are the results of prepossessions 
about " space " and " substance " which are 
merely misleading. We must be content with 
the equations, which express relations between 
observable phenomena, but an attempt to 
find the " meaning " of the equations, in the 
old-fashioned sense, is at least premature. 

One important philosophic consequence of 
the new quantum theory is that it makes it 
more likely that the notion of an enduring sub- 
stance, a notion that was still embodied in the 
electron, is irrelevant to phj-sics. The other 
great modern theor3^, relativity theory, also 
does a great deal to diminish the importance 
of the idea of substance. In considering 
the implications of relativity theory Mr. 
Russell has devoted most attention to the 
method of exposition adopted by Professor 
Eddington. This method begins with a four- 
dimensional continuum of point-events." 
Between " neighbouring " point-events exists a 
relation called the " interval," which can be 
given mathematical expression. By perform- 

1 ing purely mathematical operations on this I 
expression quantities can be built up which I 
obey the same equations tliat physicists use 
i to describe the behaviour of tlie " material " 
i universe — excepting quantum phenomena. In 
y a sense, therefore, the universe of physics is 
I " deduced " from the postulated interval rela- 
! tion. The implications of this mathematical 
! feat are not obvious. It might be thought to 
I show that the material universe is the necesa 
sary result of the action of the human mind 
j upon the four-dimensional continuum of 
point-events. We require to know nothing of 
the nature of point-events. We merely 
require to assume that groups of them 

[exhibit a certain minimum amount of 
structure. From the existence of this 
structure alone the material universe may 

be deduced. The " objective " universe, there- 
fore, so far as science reveals it, would seem , 
to consist of these point-events of unknown , 
nature. From this collection of point-events , 
different minds could construct different uni- 
verses. The human mind, acting on this 
material, has constructed the universe we 
know. This would seem to be the point of ' 
view of Professor Eddington. But it is not, i 
apparenth^, shared by '^J.v. Russell. He 
says : — 

Tim appearance of decluciiig actual p.henomena \ 
fioni niatheniatics is delusive ; what really liappens 
is tliat tlie phenomena afford inductive verification 
of tho general principles from wliicli our mathe- 
matics starts. Every observed fact retains its full ' 
evidential value ; but now it confirms not merely 
^;ome ])articular law, but tho general law from 
N\ hicli the deductive system starts. There is, liow- 
ever, no logiciil necessity for one fact to follow given ' 
anotlipr, or a number of others, because there is no ; 
logical necessity about our fundamental principles. 

We could wish that Mr. Russell had developed 
this remark, for its implications are presum- 
ably important. There is no logical necessity ; 
about a forthcoming eclipse, for the universe j 
might change altogether in the twinkling of 
an eye, but if Mr. Russell means no more than | 
this Professor Eddington's deduction retains | 
its significance. There are difficulties of inter- j 
pretation, however, when we come to consider j 
the fundamental assumptions of the theory, I 
and here Mr. Russell is particularly illuminat- i 
ing. These difficulties, however, centre round 
the technicalities of the subject. In particular, 
Mr. Russell gives a valuable analysis of the [ 
notion of measurement as used in relativity 
theory. " I 

In the second part of his book Mr. Russell ! 
discusses the relation between the world of 
physics and the world of perception. The 
phj'sical world is inferred from our percepts 
_and in making this inference we assume the 


causal theory of perception. We can definitely 
say, of the physical world so inferred that it 
lias a structure similar to the structure of our 
percepts, but we can say nothing about the 
intrinsic character of what we have inferred. 
Ihc tact that "matter*' need not be thought 
ot as an enduring substance, but as a string 
of events, makes it possible that this intrinsic 
character is of the nature of percepts. In the 
third and concluding part Mr. Russell ex- 
pounds some very interesting speculations re- 
garding the structure of the physical world. 
Among other things the possibilities of a dis- 
continuous space and time are explored, and 
some of the incidental discussions, as of 
" periodicity," may turn out to be of real help 
to scientitic investigators. The whole book is 
candid and stimulating and, for both its sub- 
ject and its treatment, one of the best that Mr. 
Russell has given us. 

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